1.1 What is RSA Laboratories' Frequently Asked Questions About Today's Cryptography?
1.2 What is cryptography?
1.3 What are some of the more popular techniques in cryptography?
1.4 How is cryptography applied?
1.5 What are cryptography standards?
1.6 What is the role of the United States government in cryptography?
1.7 Why is cryptography important?
2.1 Cryptographic Tools
2.1.1 What is public-key cryptography?
2.1.2 What is secret-key cryptography?
2.1.3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of public-key cryptography compared with secret-key cryptography?
2.1.4 What is a block cipher?
220.127.116.11 What is an iterated block cipher?
18.104.22.168 What is Electronic Code Book Mode?
22.214.171.124 What is Cipher Block Chaining Mode?
126.96.36.199 What is Cipher Feedback Mode?
188.8.131.52 What is Output Feedback Mode?
184.108.40.206 What is a Linear Feedback Shift Register?
2.1.7 What are Message Authentication Codes?
2.1.8 What are interactive proofs and zero-knowledge proofs?
2.1.9 What are secret sharing schemes?
2.2.1 What is privacy?
2.2.2 What is a digital signature and what is authentication?
2.2.3 What is a key agreement protocol?
2.2.4 What is a digital envelope?
2.2.5 What is identification?
2.3.1 What is a hard problem?
2.3.2 What is a one-way function?
2.3.3 What is the factoring problem?
2.3.4 What are the best factoring methods in use today?
2.3.5 What improvements are likely in factoring capability?
2.3.6 What is the RSA Factoring Challenge?
2.3.7 What is the discrete logarithm problem?
2.3.8 What are the best discrete logarithm methods in use today?
2.3.9 What are the prospects for a theoretical breakthrough in the discrete logarithm problem?
2.3.10 What are elliptic curves?
2.3.11 What are lattice-based cryptosystems?
2.3.12 What are some other hard problems?
2.4.1 What is cryptanalysis?
2.4.2 What are some of the basic types of cryptanalytic attack?
2.4.3 What is exhaustive key search?
2.4.4 What is the RSA Secret Key Challenge?
2.4.5 What are the most important attacks on symmetric block ciphers?
2.4.6 What are some techniques against hash functions?
2.4.7 What are the most important attacks on stream ciphers?
2.4.8 What are the most important attacks on MACs?
2.4.9 At what point does an attack become practical?
3.1.1 What is the RSA cryptosystem?
3.1.2 How fast is the RSA algorithm?
3.1.3 What would it take to break the RSA cryptosystem?
3.1.4 What are strong primes and are they necessary for the RSA system?
3.1.5 How large a key should be used in the RSA cryptosystem?
3.1.6 Could users of the RSA system run out of distinct primes?
3.1.7 How is the RSA algorithm used for privacy in practice?
3.1.8 How is the RSA algorithm used for authentication and digital signatures in practice?
3.1.9 Is the RSA cryptosystem currently in use?
3.1.10 Is the RSA system an official standard today?
3.1.11 Is the RSA system a de facto standard?
3.2.1 What is DES?
3.2.2 Has DES been broken?
3.2.3 How does one use DES securely?
3.2.4 Should one test for weak keys in DES?
3.2.5 Is DES a group?
3.2.6 What is triple-DES?
3.2.7 What is DESX?
3.2.8 What are some other DES variants?
3.3.1 What is the AES?
3.3.2 What were some candidates for the AES?
3.3.3 What was the schedule for the AES?
3.5 Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
3.5.1 What are elliptic curve cryptosystems?
3.5.2 Are elliptic curve cryptosystems secure?
3.5.3 Are elliptic curve cryptosystems widely used?
3.5.4 How do elliptic curve cryptosystems compare with other cryptosystems?
3.5.5 What is the Certicom ECC Challenge?
3.6.1 What is Diffie-Hellman?
3.6.2 What is RC2?
3.6.3 What is RC4?
3.6.4 What are RC5 and RC6?
3.6.5 What are SHA and SHA-1?
3.6.6 What are MD2, MD4, and MD5?
3.6.7 What are some other block ciphers?
3.6.8 What are some other public-key cryptosystems?
3.6.9 What are some other signature schemes?
3.6.10 What are some other stream ciphers?
3.6.11 What other hash functions are there?
3.6.12 What are some secret sharing schemes?
4.1 Key Management
4.1.1 What is key management
220.127.116.11 What key size should be used?
18.104.22.168 How does one find random numbers for keys?
22.214.171.124 What is the life cycle of a key?
126.96.36.199 What is a PKI?
188.8.131.52 Who needs a key pair?
184.108.40.206 How does one get a key pair?
220.127.116.11 Should a key pair be shared among users?
18.104.22.168 What happens when a key expires?
22.214.171.124 What happens if my key is lost?
126.96.36.199 What happens if my private key is compromised?
188.8.131.52 How should I store my private key?
184.108.40.206 How do I find someone else's public key?
220.127.116.11 What are certificates?
18.104.22.168 How are certificates used?
22.214.171.124 Who issues certificates and how?
126.96.36.199 How do certifying authorities store their private keys?
188.8.131.52 How are certifying authorities susceptible to attack?
184.108.40.206 What if a certifying authority's key is lost or compromised?
220.127.116.11 What are Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)?
5.1 Security on the Internet
5.1.1 What is S/MIME?
5.1.2 What is SSL?
5.1.3 What is S/WAN?
5.1.4 What is IPSec?
5.1.5 What is SSH?
5.1.6 What is Kerberos?
5.2.1 What are CAPIs?
5.2.2 What is the GSS-API?
5.2.3 What are RSA BSAFE CRYPTO-C and RSA BSAFE CRYPTO-J?
5.2.4 What is SecurPC?
5.2.5 What is SecurID?
5.2.6 What is PGP?
6.1 LEGAL DISCLAIMER
6.2 Government Involvement
6.2.1 What is NIST?
6.2.2 What is the NSA?
6.2.3 What is Capstone?
6.2.4 What is Clipper?
6.2.5 What is the Current Status of Clipper?
6.2.6 What is Fortezza?
6.3.1 Is RSA patented?
6.3.2 Is DSA patented?
6.3.3 Is DES patented?
6.3.4 Are elliptic curve cryptosystems patented?
6.3.5 What are the important patents in cryptography?
6.4.1 Can the RSA algorithm be exported from the United States?
6.4.2 Can DES be exported from the United States?
6.4.3 Why is cryptography export-controlled?
6.4.4 Are digital signature applications exportable from the United States?
7.1 What is probabilistic encryption?
7.2 What are special signature schemes?
7.3 What is a blind signature scheme?
7.4 What is a designated confirmer signature?
7.5 What is a fail-stop signature scheme?
7.6 What is a group signature?
7.7 What is a one-time signature scheme?
7.8 What is an undeniable signature scheme?
7.9 What are on-line/off-line signatures?
7.10 What is OAEP?
7.11 What is digital timestamping?
7.12 What is key recovery?
7.13 What are LEAFs?
7.14 What is PSS/PSS-R?
7.15 What are covert channels?
7.16 What are proactive security techniques?
7.17 What is quantum computing?
7.18 What is quantum cryptography?
7.19 What is DNA computing?
7.20 What are biometric techniques?
7.21 What is tamper-resistant hardware?
7.22 How are hardware devices made tamper-resistant?
8.1 Where can I learn more about cryptography?
8.2 Where can I learn more about recent advances in cryptography?
8.3 Where can I learn more about electronic commerce?
8.4 Where can I learn more about cryptography standards?
8.5 Where can I learn more about laws concerning cryptography?
A.2 Modular arithmetic
A.4 Fields and rings
A.5 Vector spaces and lattices
A.6 Boolean expressions
A.7 Time estimations and some complexity theory