There are a number of textbooks available to the student of cryptography. Among the most useful are the following three.
Applied Cryptography by B. Schneier, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. Schneier's book is an accessible and practically oriented book with very broad coverage of recent and established cryptographic techniques.
Handbook of Applied Cryptography by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S.A. Vanstone. CRC Press, 1996. The HAC offers a thorough treatment of cryptographic theory and protocols, with a great deal of detailed technical information. It is an excellent reference book, but somewhat technical, and not aimed to serve as an introduction to cryptography.
Cryptography: Theory and Practice by D. R. Stinson. CRC Press, 1995. This is a textbook, and includes exercises. Theory comes before practice in both title and content, but the book provides a good introduction to the fundamentals of cryptography.
For additional information, or more detailed information about specific topics, the reader is referred to the chapter summaries and bibliographies in any one of these texts.