Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201, titled the "Personal Identity Verification of Federal Employees and Contractors," was developed in response to the Homeland Security Presidential Directive – 12 (HSPD-12). The Standard was issued in February, 2005. It references three NIST publications:
• NIST Special Publication 800-73, "Interfaces for Personal Identity Verification," which discusses technical elements of the PIV card,
• NIST Special Publication 800-76, "Biometric Data Specification for Personal Identity Verification," which details requirements for biometric data of the PIV system, and
• NIST Special Publication 800-78, "Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Sizes for Personal Identity Verification," which outlines the cryptographic algorithms and key sizes for the PIV system.
The FIPS 201 PIV card is specified for both physical and logical access controls. Also other applications as determined by the individual agencies.
When reviewing FIPS 201 it's important to keep in mind that other aspects of NIST's Computer Security Division's PIV program are currently ongoing. Elements like interoperability testing may require changes and revisions to the details in the relevant Special Publications.